Background of the Battle of Plassey (June 23, 1757)
After the battle of Plassey it became clear that the East India Company was no longer just a trading organization, but a politically dominant organization in India.
Siraj-ud-daulah became the Nawab of Bengal in 1756. Sirajuddaula had advised his grandfather to avoid conflict with the British. But the situation was such that he had to fight with the British.
After Sirajuddaula took over the Nawabship, he asked the British and French authorities in Bengal to remove the army which had been erected around their colonies and factories.
The French obeyed the Nawab’s orders. The British avoided order and saying that they were needed to protect them from attacks by the French. The Nawab did not agree with the British but ordered the British to destroy the ramparts, trenches, etc., and if they did not do so, the British would be expelled.
The British did not even pay taxes to the Nawab on the basis of a charter obtained from the Mughal emperor in 1717. Similarly, the British had made friendly relations with the enemies of the Nawab. Moreover, on Krishnadas, a rich merchant due to the Nawab’s reluctance, he went to the British shelter in Calcutta with his family and money.
Britishers refused to surrender it to the Nawab. This incident infuriated the Nawab.
The Nawab attacked Qasim Bazaar and captured colonies from the British. At the same time, 50,000 British troops and Fort William were captured.
The British army officer John Holwell reacted strongly to the Nawab’s army but he also lost.
The Nawab captured the British troops in a small dark cell and opened the cell after 8 hours. 123 prisoners died and 22 prisoners survived. (Historians do not agree on this incident.)
In response, the British called in troops from Madras and start to invade Bengal.
Alinagar Treaty Between Nawab and British
On January 2, 1757, Calcutta began to be conquered by bribing an officer of the Nawab named Manikchand. East India workers looted Hooghly and surrounding areas.
As soon as Nawab heard about this incident, he went to teach a lesson to the British with 40,000 troops.
But Robert Clive, a dutiful officer, suddenly attacked the Nawab’s army and defeated the Nawab. (Robert Clive, a simple clerk of the company, became the company’s top official.)
The Nawab made a treaty with the British at Alinagar on February 9, 1757.
According to the Alinagar Treaty, the British got the right to fortify the area around Calcutta.
Returned with damages. Right to tax-free import to Bengal, Bihar, Orissa in addition, the British got the right to drop their currency and use their own currency.
The treaty of Alinagar was very beneficial to the British, but they were not satisfied. Consent from the Nawab was required to conquer the high colonies, but since the Nawab had a cordial relationship with the French. Nawab sent a vague reply to the British demand.
The British did not like this answer and attacked and conquered the French colony of Chandannagar.
Conspiracy against Nawab
Hindu Diwan Rayvallabh, Muslim Sardar, People like Jagatsheth, Army Officer Khadim Khan, etc. were hurt for one reason or another, to hurt Sirajuddaula.
In addition, the Nawab’s commander Khadimkhana filed a case against Sirajuddaula against the British officer Robert Clive. Asked for help, Clive agreed to pay immediately, and a secret agreement was reached.
Accordingly, Khadimkhan should march towards Plassey, Mir Jafar should give him the title of Nawab and if he wins the battle, Mir Jafar should give him the post of Nawab. In return for the position of Nawab, Mir Jafar gave the company trade concessions and handed over some territories to the East India Company.
It was decided to do. Amin Chand was the trader who mediated the deal. Amin Chanda paid for it. So he demanded Rs 30 lakh. If the demand is not met, he should inform Sirajuddaula.
Robert Clive agreed. But he forgave Amin Chand by forging the contract documents completely deceived.
Battle of Plassey 1757
According to the secret agreement, Clive accused Sirajuddaula of colluding with the French and the British. Clive also made some almost impossible demands before Sirajuddaula.
After Sirajuddaula rejected those demands, Clive marched with his 8,000 troops to Murshidabad, the base of Sirajuddaula. Sirajuddaula your
He was ready in Murshidabad with 50,000 troops. The two armies met at Plassey on June 23, 1757, and they clashed with each other.
Mir Jafar and Raivallabh the generals were leading the Nawab’s army. Both under the terms of the secret agreement the generals made no move in the battle. However, the French army supporting Sirajuddaula fought valiantly.
The defeat of Sirajuddaula was inevitable as the Nawab’s army did not take part in the war. Sirajuddila was defeated battle of Plassey there was a great defeat, 5,000 of his soldiers were killed, however, 29 Company soldiers were killed.
The Nawab managed to escape but was captured at the palace and killed by his son Miran on Mir Jafar’s orders. Four days later, Mir Jafar has proclaimed Nawab of Bengal at Murshidabad.
Importance of the Battle of Plassey
The Battle of Plassey was of great importance to the East India Company. Mir-Jaffer had to pay Clive a very large sum of money. Big rewards were also given to the employees of the company.
From all these important facts, it became clear that the East India Company was no longer just a trading organization, but a politically dominant organization in India.
The East India Company not only defeated the French but also gained a large territory like Bengal. As soon as the infrastructure was in place to expand power in the north. In the same year, the company started minting coins in Calcutta.
Battle of Buxar 1764
After the battle of Plassey, Mirzafar appointed him Nawab of Bengal, as agreed in a secret treaty. But Mirzafar was a weak ruler. The greedy and selfish actions of the British made the condition of the Bengali people miserable.
Mir Zafar remained Nawab until Robert Clive. But after Clive went to England, the political situation in Bengal took such a turn that Mirzafar had to retire from the post of Nawab. And his son-in-law Mir Qasim was made Nawab by the British.
In return, Mir Qasim had to pay some districts, the rest of the ransom, the expenses of the Karnataka war. Also, he decided to pay large sums of money to the British authorities.
Mir Qasim as ruler
Mir Qasim was a great administrator. He gave all the donations to the British as decided in 1764. Mir Qasim removed the officers who were in Jafar’s time and brought new officers to his court. Western Armenian military training assigned to the army. He set up arms factories. Monghir was shifted from Murshidabad, the capital of Bengal. Overall, Mirkasim changed the administration.
Mir Qasim took several important steps to curb British domination. The decree of 1717 revoked the free trade license granted by the British to Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa. Promoted and protected local traders. This action angered the English and they demanded that the British trade continues as before.
But Mir Qasim rejected the demand, angering the British.
The British, seeing the dealings of Mir Qasim, decided to make the old Nawab Mirzafar Nawab again. British announced that. But Mir Qasim did not pay attention to them and the British sent troops against him. Mir Qasim was defeated and moved to Patna.
He killed all the British prisoners in his custody. So the British sent their army to Patna to kill Mir Qasim and captured Patna. Mir Qasim fled from there and went to Shuja-Ud-Daulah of Awadh.
Mir Qasim, Shuja-Ud-Daulah, and the Mughal emperor II Shah formed a joint team to face the British. He persuaded the British to suspend their political activities and limit their scope to trade only.
But not considered British. They had such a large army that they were not afraid of anyone. The British defeated the combined forces and forced them to retreat to Buxar.
The British and the Allies fought at Buxar on 23 October 1764. The battle of Buxar fought between British and Mir Qasim, Shuja-ud-Daulah, and Mughal emperor 2 Shah
The combined forces were defeated in this battle. Mir Qasim fled again, the Mughal emperor came under British occupation. Shuja-Ud-Daulah went to the shelter of Malharrao Holkar.
A few days later, Shuja-Ud-Daulah was captured by the British. The British made him Nawab of Awadh again. Mir Qasim fled to Delhi and died there.
The importance and Causes of the Battle of Buxar
This battle became a turning point in the history of India. The British defeated the combined forces of Mir Qasim, Shuja-Ud-Daulah, and the Mughal emperor on the strength of their effective enemy. So the British thought that we could defeat anyone in India.
The victory of the British at Plassey was largely based on conspiracy and betrayal, in that sense, the victory of Buxar was a real weapon. So historians say that Buxara’s victory was more important than Plassey’s. This is the difference between the Battle of Plassey and the Battle of Buxar.
The process of conquering Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa by the British which was started in the battle of Plassey was completed in the battle of Buxar
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This Battle of Buxar is for UPSC.