Mahatma Gandhi information
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on 2 October 1869 at Porbandar in Kathewad district of Gujarat. He was born into a middle-class family. People in India used to call Gandhiji as Mahatma Gandhi. He was a lawyer, writer, social activist, and political leader.
He completed his law education at the age of 22 and moved to South Africa as a lawyer of a merchant Dada Abdullah in 1893.
Mahatma Gandhi in South Africa
When he was traveling in South Africa on the train to Pretoria. He was sitting in the first-class compartment. Then a white man complained against him, and they drove him out the train. While he had a ticket for the first-class compartment.
Due to this, he fought against apartheid in South Africa. He started Natal Indian Congress an organization in 1894. In this organization, the white people who used to discriminate against the people living in South Africa started fighting against them in a non-violent manner.
He started the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1906 to expose injustice against the people and bring them to justice. Gandhiji called this action “Satyagraha”. Mahatma Gandhi Satyagrah in South Africa.
He was sentenced to jail many times. In 1909, he was sentenced to jail for three months in Volkshurst and Pretoria. When he released, he went to England to seek the Indian community there.
Gandhiji also fought against the nulliication of non-christian marriage. He also started a newspaper in South Africa called “Indian Opinion” to raise his voice against white people and the British.
Mahatma Gandhi spent 21 years in South Africa. He went to South Africa in April 1893 at the age of 23. Where he develops his political and ethnic view.
Mahatma Gandhiji came to India
On January 9, 1915, Mahatma Gandhi came to India from South Africa. In 2011, the Government of India was celebrating 9th January as Pravasi Bharatiya Divas to mark the contribution of the overseas Indian community in the development of India.
He set up the “Sabarmati Ashram” in Gujarat in 1916 to study the situation in India before starting his actual work. He facilitated his followers to share and experience his thoughts on truth and non-violence.
After this Mahatma Gandhi Started many Movements in India. Gandhiji’s first movement is “Champaran Satyagrah” in 1917.
Mahatma Gandhiji’s major Movements in India
Champaran Satyagrah date 19 April 1917
Champaran Satyagrah was launched by Gandhiji against the British. Gandhiji’s first satyagraha was based on the Civil Disobedience Movement.
The Indigo farmers in Bihar were being oppressed by the British. The British insisted that indigo should be planted on 3/20 of the total land area and the product should be sold at the price agreed by the British farmers.
In Bengal, farmers were subjected to similar compulsions, but due to the uprising in 1959, the restrictions were lifted. Nili farmers from Champaran village in Bihar went to Gandhiji and requested him to do satyagraha.
When Gandhiji came to Champaran, he saw the condition of the farmers there and he got angry with this situation. He also ordered the British Collector to leave Champaran immediately. But this order was not obeyed by the British.
So Gandhiji gave the message that we should go to jail. The British authorities then withdrew their order and ordered an inquiry into the injustice done to the farmers in Champaran.
The British authority appointed a committee to inquire about this situation and appointed Gandhiji as a member of that committee. According to the report of the committee, injustice was done to the farmers of Champaran. Thus Gandhiji achieved the first success of the Satyagraha path, he also pointed out the extreme poverty of the farmers.
Ahmedabad Mill Strike by Gandhiji
Mahatma Gandhi not only fought against the British but also against the locals. This is understood from the Ahmedabad mill strike.
Ahmedabad was the second-largest city in the Bombay Presidency. The large cotton industry was established here. In February-March 1918, a dispute arose between the mill owners and the workers over the plague bonus. At that time the mill owners were willing to pay 20 percent more but the workers wanted 50 percent.
Ahmedabad mill strike date was 11 February 1918. Gandhiji went on strike in a dispute between the mill owners and the mill workers in Ahmedabad. For this, he went on a fast unto death. This was the first fast in Gandhiji’s life. The mill owner bowed on the fourth day of Gandhiji’s fast and compromised with the workers and increased their salaries by 35 percent.
Kheda Satyagrah year 1918
In 1918, crops in the Kheda district of Gujarat dried up. Even then, farmers were forced to pay land revenue. The farmers demanded cancellation of the farm as per the drought rules. At the same time, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel left his lawyer and went on a satyagraha with Gandhiji.
Under pressure from Gandhiji and Sardar Patel, the British government gave concessions to the farmers of Kheda.
Rowlatt act-satyagraha 1919
The Rowlatt Act was brought to ease the movement against the British running in India. Rowlett’s act was created with the recommendation of Arthur Rowlatt’s committee.
The Rowlatt Act was the first national level movement by Gandhiji.
The Rowlatt Act was the first national-level movement by Gandhi. On 26 February 1919, Gandhiji organized a Satyagraha Sabha in Mumbai. It was decided in this meeting that this satyagraha would be done through truth and non-violence. This Satyagraha was also supported by the Homerul League.
Jaliyanwala Bagh Masaccre date 13 April 1919
The movement against the Roulette Act was very strong in Punjab. The atmosphere in Punjab was heated due to the forced recruitment of soldiers for the war and the terrorist movement. Violent incidents took place on April 6, 1919, during the general strike in Punjab.
This time the government brutally tortured the people to break up the protests. During this period, General Michael O’Dwyer, known as the ruthless administrator, arrested Dr. Satyapal and Dr. Kichlu. On April 13, 1919, people came to protest against this arrest and against the British rule at Jallianwala Bagh.
The British troops then surrounded the Jallianwala Bagh. So there was no place for people to escape and there was only one way out. The unarmed community gathered for the meeting was fired upon by an officer named Dyer on the orders of General O’Dwyer. The shootings killed at least 1,000 people and injured dozens more.
After this massacre, martial law was declared in Punjab and the state of terror of the British government started in Punjab.
In protest against this massacre, the poet Rabindranath Tagore returned the honorary degree of knighthood given by the British government. Former National Assembly Speaker Shankar Nair has resigned as a member of the Viceroy Council.
After the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, a different turn took place in the politics of India. The atmosphere was already filled with the Khilafat movement.
It was a cruel decision. How can anyone shoot at unarmed people? The world knew that the British government would be so helpless and would do anything for power.